All you need to know about the BOD incubator

All you need to know about the BOD incubator

Bod incubator stands for biological oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand determination incubator. This device’s design allows maintaining a low temperature at 20 degrees Celsius. Hence this incubator maintains reliably low temperature and is the most versatile incubator. 

BOD incubator Manufacturers design incubators effectively to maintain a constant temperature. For enhanced test and exposure, the temperature conditions of BOD incubators are controlled efficiently. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) offers you an empirical test. 

This test determines the comparative oxygen requirements of microbes in polluted waters, effluents, wastewaters, etc., and this test is used chiefly in standardized laboratory procedures. 

Biochemical oxygen demand determination is dependent on how fast biological organisms can use oxygen on the surface of water or its measure of oxygen for the biochemical degradation of organic substances. 

The oxygen used here provides oxidation of inorganic materials such as ferrous iron, sulfides, etc. Estimating the dilute process and seeding in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) gives a pH level of 6.5 to 7.5.

Overview of biochemical oxygen demand methodology

BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) methodology is a quantitative expression of microbes capability that decreases the oxygen content in the wastewater. The decrease in oxygen content is because of the microbes that consume natural organic matter such as bacteria, plant material, algae, etc., in the water through aerobic respiration. 

Aerobic respiration uses an oxygen (O) molecule as an electron acceptor. Because without oxygen molecules, aerobic respiration would not be possible. Natural organic matter such as bacteria, algae, etc., which have been consumed for a long time, offers a source of energy. These natural organic matters without the help of microbes undergo a process called oxidation. 

Another procedure called chemical oxygen demand (COD) measures these organic matters. 

Let’s see how this procedure takes place,

● Initially, a sample is enclosed in a robust airtight bottle. 

● Then this sample is kept inside the incubator for a specific condition and for a specified time. 

● After incubation, it measures Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Dissolved oxygen (DO) is referred to as the amount/volume of oxygen present in water bodies. The difference between the initial and final DO, you can compute biological oxygen demand (BOD). 

● The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water drops because of high levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD) in streams. The reason behind fish and zooplanktons survives dissolved oxygen (DO). When the level of dissolved oxygen decreases, the ecology of the stream will start to die as well. 

● This condition leads to the increased birth of a unique species that can live without oxygen, called anaerobic bacteria. The increase in anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of hazardous gases and foul-smelling environments. 

● The hazardous gases include hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and a hazardous gas which is methane. When this water enters the ground and mixes with the groundwater sources, the toxic species would lead to severe problems for humans.  

Factors that affect biochemical oxygen demand or biological chemical demand (BOD)

● The accuracy and precision of the measurements can affect some factors, like

● Particulate organic versus soluble organics

● Floatable and resolvable solids

● Oxidation of sulfur compounds and reduced iron compounds or 

● Absence of mixing

● The microorganism’s mediate oxidation of decreased forms of nitrogen like organic nitrogen ammonia, etc., thus releasing nitrogenous demand. 

● While determining biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogenous demand has been deemed an essential interfering factor. 

● An external source of nitrogenous demand leads to a contribution due to additional ammonia in diluting water. 

● An inhibitory chemical prevents the demand between the interference of nitrogen. 

● When an inhibiting chemical is not in the usage, it leads to the sum of nitrogenous and carbonaceous demand, equivalent to the oxygen demand. 

Water pollution and Biological oxygen demand

The most common criteria for pollutant organic material in water is biological oxygen demand. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) demonstrates the number of pollutants existing in the water. Whenever biological oxygen demand indicates a low value, then it means the quality of water is good. Similarly, when biological oxygen demand indicates a high value, then it means the water is polluted. 

Bacteria consume dissolved oxygen (DO) present or available in the water. This consumption of bacteria is due to a large amount of organic matter from wastage or other discharges present in the water. 

Dissolved oxygen is originally the amount of oxygen found in the dissolved form inside the water. When the mishap decreases in dissolved oxygen value below a certain level, the lives present inside the water cannot continue living at an average rate. The decrease in the oxygen supply creates a tremendous negative impact on the lives of aquatic species. 

The stream pollution control activities consider the biological oxygen demand test as an essential function. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is a biological procedure that measures the amount of oxygen consumed by any living organism. 

This oxygen consumption happens when they utilize the organic matter present in sewage or waste. The other indicators or conventional tests to test the quality of water, its pH and chemical oxygen demand. 


● To treat and evaluate the removal of biological oxygen demands efficiency in treatment plants. Such treatment systems measure the waste loadings. 

● It employs molecular oxygen during a particular gestation period for the biochemical degradation of organic material. 

● The oxygen oxidizes few inorganic materials such as ferrous iron and sulfides etc. 

● The reduced forms of nitrogenous demand (nitrogen) use the amount of oxygen to oxidize. This oxidation will continue until an inhibitor prevents it. 

BOD incubator Manufacturers advises following these Safety Guidelines below,

● You must never cover the shelf of the incubator with the help of Aluminium foil. 

● If you cover the shelf, it might cause malfunctions in temperature control or barrier to air circulation. 

● If you don’t want any errors in the operation, you must often control the incubator’s temperature.


Thus, we have seen in this article about biological oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) incubators. The BOD procedure is helpful mainly for microorganisms. BOD incubator Manufacturers suggest that you must handle it with care while using.

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